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What is Face Value of Share

What is Face Value of Share?

Understanding the face value of a share is fundamental for anyone involved in stock market investments. Let's get into what face value means, its importance, and how it contrasts with market value, providing you with a clear understanding essential for making informed investment decisions.

What is Face Value?

The face value of a share, also known as the par value or nominal value, is the value assigned to a stock at the time it is issued. This value is typically set by the issuing company and is stated on the share certificate. In India, it is often a nominal amount, such as Rs 10, Rs 5, or even Rs 1 per share.

Importance of Face Value

1. Basis for Accounting

Face value is crucial for a company's accounting and financial statements. It helps in determining the share capital of the company, which is the product of the face value and the number of issued shares.

2. Dividend Calculation

In some cases, dividends are declared as a percentage of the face value. For example, if a company announces a 20% dividend on a share with a face value of Rs 10, the dividend per share would be Rs 2.

3. Stock Splits and Consolidations

The face value plays a significant role during corporate actions such as stock splits or consolidations. In a stock split, the face value of each share is reduced while the number of shares increases, maintaining the overall capital. Conversely, in a consolidation (or reverse split), the face value increases, and the number of shares decreases.

4. Bond Pricing

For bonds, the face value is the amount paid to the holder at maturity. It is also used to calculate interest payments.

Face Value vs Market Value

While the face value is a fixed nominal value, the market value of a share fluctuates based on supply and demand dynamics in the stock market. Market value represents the current price at which the share is traded on the stock exchange.

Key Differences

Aspect Face Face Value Market Value
Definition Value assigned to a share by the issuing company at the time of issuance. Current price at which a share is traded on the stock exchange.
Determination Set by the company during issuance. Determined by supply and demand dynamics in the market.
Stability Remains constant unless altered by corporate actions (e.g., stock splits). Continuously fluctuates based on market conditions.
Purpose Used for accounting, calculating share capital, and during corporate actions. Used to evaluate investment performance, calculate market capitalization, and guide trading decisions.
Role in Dividend Calculation Sometimes used to declare dividends as a percentage of the face value. Dividends received are in monetary terms, which relates more directly to market value.
Impact on Investor Sentiment Generally less significant in daily trading and investment decisions. Reflects investor perception and sentiment about the company’s future prospects.
Example A share with a face value of Rs 10. A share trading at a market value of Rs 150
Corporate Actions Important for stock splits and consolidations; adjusts the face value and number of shares. Affected by stock splits and consolidations in terms of overall market capitalization.
Usage in Financial Statements Used to calculate the company’s share capital (e.g., face value × number of shares). Not typically used in financial statements but is critical for market analysis and valuation.
Long-term Relevance Remains the same over time unless altered by specific corporate actions. Changes over time reflecting the company's performance and market conditions.

Example of Face Value in Action

Consider a company, XYZ Ltd., which issues shares with a face value of Rs 10 each. Over time, due to positive market performance, the shares trade at Rs 150 in the stock market. Here, Rs 10 is the face value, and Rs 150 is the market value. If XYZ Ltd. declares a 20% dividend, shareholders would receive Rs 2 per share, calculated based on the face value.

Impact of Stock Splits

Let's say XYZ Ltd. decides to split its stock in a 2-for-1 ratio. Each share with a face value of Rs 10 is split into two shares, each with a new face value of Rs 5. This action does not affect the overall capital but adjusts the share structure, making it more affordable for small investors and potentially increasing market liquidity.


The face value of a share is a foundational concept in the stock market, serving various critical functions from accounting to corporate actions. While it differs from market value, understanding both is essential for comprehensive stock market analysis and strategy creation. By grasping the nuances of face value, investors can better navigate dividend calculations, stock splits, and more, ultimately making more informed investment choices.

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